Through images, videos and text, this interactive section presents the relationship between Puerto Ricans and the sea. As residents of the island surrounded by the saltwater of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, our ties to the sea are vital. As a result of the discovery of the so-called New World and the process of conquest and colonization, the lives of the island’s inhabitants were influenced by Mare clausum, which represented the struggles between European countries for control of the seas and the maritime trade routes.
“This is what the ship brought in,” is a well-known and pithy phrase commonly used by island residents that show how the sea is woven into daily life. Under Spanish rule, residents made do with whatever arrived by ship, or simply dealt with the lack of what didn’t arrive. In the early centuries of the conquest and colonization of the New World, when the Spanish Crown lost interest in the island and its port, the privateers and pirates opened new smuggling routes. Smuggling counteracted the lack of trade and provided the goods that did not arrive on Spanish ships.
Modern times have not diminished the importance of the sea to the island’s economy. Ports continue to bring in merchandise, which is why the piers in the north and south of the island have been expanded. Tourism, one of the mainstays of the island economy, also depends on the ocean. Cruise ship passengers arrive weekly on our blue shores to delight in the colors and flavors of Puerto Rico, the festiveness of the island, to enjoy its attractions and cultural encounters.
Fishing is also important for islanders, both the pre-Columbian inhabitants who lived off the sea and for the modern fish markets selling the bounty of the ocean for local consumption. Demand is high, and production is not sufficient to provide for exports.
The sea has also been a source of artistic inspiration and is depicted in many works of art and crafts. It is also reflected in popular songs, in the rhythm and lyrics of plena and danza music that compare human beings to the seascape.
The policies of Mare clausum (closed sea) sustained by the Spanish Crown during colonial times and Mare liberum (open sea) claimed by other European nations that sought free access by sea to expand and control their colonies, dominated the scene on the seas during the early centuries of the conquest.
Mare clausum of two colonial powers (Spain and the United States) is Puerto Rico’s framework. Mare liberum of dreams and daring, challenges tied to the shipping laws, the merchant marine and the brave little boats on which some arrive from other islands both near and distant, looking for something more, looking for progress; challenges to consider when discussing the development of Puerto Rico. The sea is the frontier by which authority arrives and hopes depart. Throughout history we have been invaded by sea and we have emigrated by sea. The calamities of hurricanes and rain also transform the sea. The winds of storms and hurricanes arrive on our doorstep from this grand and mysterious expanse of blue.
Times of peace and times of war also arrive by sea, both maritime blockades during war and the beautiful regatta of 1992 when the island celebrated 500 years of Christopher Columbus’ arrival and the ships, imitating the ancient caravels, sailed from the coast of Spain to San Juan to repeat the feat in commemoration. In modern times, sailing and the sailing sports are common activities well established at the marinas in Puerto Rico.
In short, for Puerto Ricans, the sea is a place for recreation and for flight, both a yearning and a means of escape. Perhaps it reflects our idiosyncrasies as a people, this sea that sways between the going and coming of its waves, like our waves. It is an important part of our culture to go to the sea, to its shores or to its beaches for sports or for relaxation, or simply, as the Spanish poet Pedro Salinas said… to contemplate it. Poetic voices fill its endless motion, and ours, with lyricism.
PROE Editorial Group
In his papal bull Inter Caetera, issued May 3, 1493, His Holiness Alexander VI, “by the authority of Omnipotent God,” granted the Catholic royalty of Spain and their heirs and successors all the lands and islands discovered and yet to be discovered by their envoys along “with all of their estates, cities, forces, sites, villages, rights, jurisdictions and all their belongings.” The Pope strictly prohibited: “Any person of any rank, even if royal or imperial, state, grade, order or condition… to go for the purpose of trade or any other purpose without special license from your majesty and your majesty’s heirs and successors to the islands and lands discovered and yet to be discovered.”
A day later, another papal bull assigned to the Crown the exclusive right to acquire territorial possessions and to trade in all of the lands one hundred leagues west of any of the Azores Islands or the Cape Verde Islands. This pronouncement by Alexander VI was not considered unusual. As the spiritual father of all the people on earth, it was customary for the Pope to claim the right to regulate relationships between the Christian world and non-believers, including the important issue of trade. Nicholas V, in his papal bull Romanus Pontifex of 1455, granted Portugal the exclusive rights to create laws and impose restrictions and taxes and to grant permits related to the trade with non-believers in the south of Africa. In the same way, the papal bull Inter Caetera gave Spain a sphere of influence and an area in which it could establish a three-part monopoly —political, religious and commercial— theoretically without any foreign intrusion.
The first years of Puerto Rico’s history, after the founding of Caparra by Juan Ponce de León in 1508, are an important chapter in the process of transculturation that occurred within the constraints of Mare clausum, or Spanish exclusivity. The concept was based on the principle that foreigners should be excluded as traders from the enterprise of colonization.
On June 15, 1510, shortly after Ponce de León founded Caparra, the King ordered that all ships on their way to Hispaniola stop in San Juan and provide supplies to the colonists. Before the end of the year, the Trading House was instructed to ensure that all ships on their way to the Indies make their first stop in Puerto Rico, for the purpose of intimidating the Caribe indigenous people. As the first key point on the route to the Indies, the new settlement was in a position to benefit from the passage of men and provisions on the business of exploration.
The island’s position as a center of trade was affirmed further by the stimulus of trade among the colonies. On February 26, 1511, the Crown granted free trade between Hispaniola and San Juan, and a year later it allowed colonists on both islands to harvest pearls along the coasts as long as they paid a tribute of one fifth of the pearls to the King. Although this concession was temporarily suspended during the short rule of the Hieronymite priests, because of the many abuses against the indigenous people, the permission was restored in 1518. Two years later, according to a report sent by royal officials on the island, the people of San Germán, on the western side of Puerto Rico, exported pearls to Spain.
With two ports open to Spanish ships and permission to trade pearls, Puerto Rico became a useful outpost for the various activities on which the Spanish embarked in the Caribbean. For more than ten years, the ships that sailed between Spain and its growing empire in the Americas frequented the island’s ports. A total of forty-seven ships visited the main port in 1527 alone.
After 1533, the ships trading in the West Indies began to pass by San Juan and the settlements were left with almost no outlet for their limited production and suffered from growing shortages of slaves and provisions. Under the circumstances, smuggling became the only way the settlers could keep the colony going and obtain the necessary products they needed to survive. The scant defenses of the towns and the unprotected and lightly populated coasts provided an excellent opportunity for this risky but profitable business, especially the illegal introduction of slaves.
The illicit commercial trade developed with the Portuguese, who were the first foreigners able to open a breach in the wall of Spanish exclusivity. The clandestine relationships with the Portuguese sailors arose as a natural consequence of the precepts of Spanish exclusivity and, beginning in the first century of the colonization, the colonist learned to reconcile their deep devotion to monarchic principles with their repeated violations of the laws when the laws did not meet their immediate needs.
PROE Editorial Group
On islands such as Puerto Rico, the coasts have a special significance, because they constitute the limits of their geography. The agents that affect the configuration of the coasts are the actions of the waves – currents and tides – chemical processes, biological activity and the tectonic movements or displacements of the surface plates of the earth.
In Puerto Rico, the coastal zone is protected legislatively through the Federal Management Law of October 27, 1972. This law led to the creation by the Planning Board and the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of the Coast Management Program and Plans of 1974 and 1978, respectively. Among the achievements of these organisms are the 20 areas that have been declared natural reserves, as well as the regulations that control and protect the beaches, dunes, mangroves, coral reefs and other coastal resources.
The coastal complex is structurally delimited by the base of the island. It is divided into three main sections: the first begins at the Rincón peninsula and extends to Vacía Talega Point (Northeast-North); the second section, from Vacía Talega Point to Guayanés Point (East – Naguabo, Humacao and Vieques); and the third section from Guayanés Point to the peninsula of Rincón and includes Santa Isabel, Ponce, Guánica, Guanajibo and Caja de Muertos Island.
Divisions of the coast
According to C.A. Kaye (Coastal Geology of Puerto Rico, 1959) the coast is divided into these divisions:
A- Northeast coast (from La Bandera Point to the Naguabo beach): There are various inlets and points, small islets, spurs of the Luquillo Range and bordering reefs. Las Cabezas de San Juan is a double tombolo, or two deposition landforms connecting islets to the coast by a sandbar formed by the currents. It appears to be a recently submerged coast, but the underwater base is nearly flat.
B1- Southeast coast (from Naguabo beach to the Port of Patillas): Large rocky promontories and broad alluvial valleys with extensive arched, half-moon beaches with silica sand alternate along this coast. There are indications of faults, as shown by the tectonic escarpments, both inland and off the coast (the Humacao and Naguabo valleys, the Pandura range and the Maunabo basin).
B2- Southeast coast (from Cuchara Point to Aguadilla): This coast is moderately indented with alternating rocky and alluvial sectors. Guayanilla Bay is protected by Guayanilla Point, a sandy bar derived from the sediment of the Tallaboa River and Verraco Point. Guánica Bay is the only pocket bay in Puerto Rico and may constitute the end of a flooded fluvial valley. Mangroves have formed in the protected parts of both bays. In the extreme southwest, Cabo Rojo is, like Las Cabezas de San Juan, another double tombolo, formed by two limestone outcroppings linked to solid land by a sandbar and connected by a narrow beach that enclose a lagoon. In Cabo Rojo are cliffs cut by the wave action. However, toward Mayagüez, the coast is protected by a broad and shallow base, which creates shallow and swampy areas. Toward the south are barrier reefs and sandy keys; to the west, reefs extend to Mayagüez. The rectilinear nature of the coast of the Rincón peninsula is evidence of its delimitation by faults.
C. South coast (from the Port of Patillas to Cuchara Point): An alluvial plain at the base of the mountains with narrow beaches of dark-colored silica sand and andesitic gravel that alternates with mangrove swamps. There are some barrier reefs and sandy keys in a chain that extends from east to west. The coast reflects the outlines of various poorly defined alluvial fans that have formed the plain in peaks separated by asymmetrical bays. These bays have a morphology that has been altered by the coastal currents that have carried sediment to the west, so the rivers that empty here have formed deltas toward the west of their mouths.
D- Northeast coast (from Aguadilla to Arecibo): Characterized by marine cliffs cut from carbonated rocks from the Miocene era that form the coast. It is also separated by a rocky or sandy base. Most of the cliffs have a height of 50 to 70 meters (154 to 230 feet), but become smaller on both extremes of the section and, between Hatillo and Arecibo, nearly disappear. The rock is abrasive but appears above the current sea level and may be related to faults located in the water, to the north of the current coastline.
E- North coast (from Arecibo to La Bandera Point): An alluvial plain with various larger swamps and lagoons. In some sites are fossil dunes of eolianite formations (calcareous sand driven by the wind under much drier climatic conditions) and beach rocks consisting of sections of petrified sand from the Pleistocene. It alternates between rocky and sandy. Islets and rocks are common and indicate the tops of partially submerged fossil dunes and the former coastline. To the east are numerous large arched inlets. Some sections are mobile and advance and recede.
Author: Dr. Manuel José Acevedo-González
Puerto Rico has a large number of marinas and nautical clubs around its coasts. There are 13 marinas on the island and 110,000 registered ships.
Club Deportivo del Oeste (Joyudas, Cabo Rojo)- The facilities include docks for sailboats and motorboats of all sizes. It currently has about 60 berths, as well as dry dock space for other boats. The club sponsors a fishing tournament, the Billfish Extreme Release League Fishing, as well as the International Light Tackle Blue Marlin Tournament.
Salinas Marina (Salinas)- The Salinas Marina is protected by a natural barrier of keys and mangroves. It is surrounded by eight miles of keys and is used by boasters as a natural refuge during hurricanes. The Salinas Marina has a capacity to accommodate 103 ships.
Puerto Chico Marina (Fajardo)- Located in the Sardinera Cove in the sector of the same name. It has a capacity of 260 boats at an average size of 35 feet in length and 370 boats in dry dock at an average size of 25 feet in length. This private marina was founded in 1968 and provides fuel storage for vessels.
Arecibo Nautical Club (Arecibo)- Located in the Vigías sector of Arecibo. This club has a marina with a capacity for 90 ships of an average size of 22 to 55 feet in length. It is the only marina that provides fuel on the route from San Juan to Mayagüez. The club was founded in the late 1960s. It includes the marina area and a double ramp area.
Boquerón Nautical Club (Cabo Rojo)- Located in the Boquerón area of Cabo Rojo. It houses approximately 112 vessels. The club was founded in 1960. Its most popular tournaments are the blue marlin and dolphin fishing tournaments.
Marina Puerto Real (Fajardo)- In addition to a pier, this marina has a hangar for maintaining boats in dry dock. The facilities are adjacent to the Isleta Marina Pier. There are spaces for boats of 28 feet in length and larger.
Puerto del Rey Marina (Fajardo)- Established in the late 1980s and located in the Majagua Bay. It has spaces for a thousand boats in the water, as well as dry dock facilities.
La Parguera Nautical Club (Lajas)- Founded in 1969. It is located close to the phosphorescent bay at La Parguera. The club accommodates a total of 51 vessels ranging from 15 to 65 feet in length. Its most important fishing tournaments are the blue marlin and dolphin tournaments. It is known for being located near one of the best dolphin fishing areas around the island.
Guayama Nautical Club (Guayama)- This private marina is located in the Pozuelos sector of Guayama on Jobos Bay and is also a nature reserve. The Guayama Nautical Club has space for vessels both on the water and in dry dock. In the water, there is room for 45 vessels 45 feet in length and up.
San Juan Nautical Club (San Juan)- This club was founded in 1934. It is located at 482 Fernández Juncos Avenue. It has 117 docks for vessels from 30 to 200 feet in length. Since 1953, the club has held the Blue Marlin International Fishing Tournament, which is considered the oldest deep-sea fishing tournament in the world. During World War II, the United States Navy confiscated some boats from the club to patrol San Juan Bay and the coasts of Puerto Rico. After the war, many members had to pay to get their boats back. During this era, the members held moonlight cruises they called “lunáuticas” on the bay on full moon nights. They also conducted sailing contests with the armed forces, which were the beginning of the development of sailing at the San Juan Nautical Club. The club has undergone various renovations, in 1951, 1992 and 2005. Today, the club uses a fleet of small boats specifically designed for teaching to offer sailing classes for children, youths and adults who are interested in learning the art of sailing.
Vega Baja Nautical Club (Vega Baja)- This club sponsors fishing activities although it does not have a marina. It has land facilities for camping and for launching boats. The club is located at the mouth of the Cibuco River on the coast of Vega Baja.
San Juan Bay Marina (San Juan)- This marina was founded in 1977 in San Juan Bay. It has the most complete nautical facilities on the island. It is located at the entrance to Old San Juan, across from the Dos Hermanos Bridge, on Lindburgh Street. It has hundreds of vessels and spaces for four mega-yachts. All the vessels are provided with connections for television, satellite, telephone, electricity and water.
Sea Lovers Marina (Fajardo)- This marina was founded in 1972. It provides a family ambience and personalized service. There are 45 spaces for vessels from 16 to 55 feet in length. The marina is located on Sardinera Bay.
Ponce Yacht and Fishing Club (Ponce)- Located at la Guancha boardwalk. The club has a capacity for 168 vessels of all sizes, as well as dry dock facilities.
Cangrejos Yacht Club (Carolina)- This club was founded in 1952. The first Inter Club Fishing Tournament was held at its facilities in 1957, fishing for blue marlin of more than 1,000 pounds. The same year, the First Ladies Fishing Tournament of Puerto Rico was held. In 2002, the 46th tournament was held and gathered 400 competitors and 100 boats from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, the Virgin Islands and the United States. The club can accommodate 200 vessels of up to 50 feet in length.
El Conquistador Marina (Fajardo)- Located on the grounds of the hotel of the same name in Las Croabas sector of Fajardo. The marina has 16 docks for vessels of up to 60 feet in length for guests or customers. It also has an area for small boats and a restaurant accessible from the water where local or visiting boats owners can anchor and enjoy the facilities.
Villa Marina Yacht Harbour (Fajardo)- Founded in 1975 at Sardinera Beach in Fajardo. This marina holds hundreds of vessels in an artificial cove, which makes it much more comfortable than other marinas. In this area, the waves are generally four feet or less and the winds are from the east at six or seven knots. It is located near numerous keys and islets, such as Palomino, Palominito, Icacos and Diablo Keys. Among other activities at the marina are held fishing tournaments, boat exhibitions and regattas.
Note: This selection of poems offers an array of meanings concerning the connection between Puerto Ricans and the Sea. The Spanish poet, Pedro Salinas, who lived on the island many years in the author of “El contemplado.”
De mirarte tanto y tanto,
de horizonte a la arena,
del caracol al celaje,
brillo a brillo, pasmo a pasmo,
te he dado nombre; los ojos
te lo encontraron, mirándote.
Por las noches,
soñando que te miraba,
al abrigo de los párpados
maduró, sin yo saberlo,
este nombre tan redondo
que hoy me descendió a los labios.
Y lo dicen asombrados
de lo tarde que lo dicen.
¡Si era fatal el llamártelo!
¡Si antes de la voz, ya estaba
en el silencio tan claro!
¡Si tú has sido para mí,
desde el día
que mis ojos te estrenaron,
el contemplado, el constante
OH MAR, NO ESPERES MÁS
Julia de Burgos
Tengo caído el sueño,
y la voz suspendida de mariposas muertas.
El corazón me sube amontonado y solo
a derrotar auroras en mis párpados.
Perdida va mi risa
por la ciudad del viento más triste y devastada.
Mi sed camina en ríos agotados y turbios,
rota y despedazándose.
Amapolas de luz, mis manos fueron fértiles
tentaciones de incendio.
Hoy, cenizas me tumban para el nido distante.
¡Oh mar, no esperes más!
Casi voy por la vida como gruta de escombros.
Ya ni el mismo silencio se detiene en mi nombre.
Inútilmente estiro mi camino sin luces.
Como muertos sin sitio se sublevan mis voces.
¡Oh mar, no esperes más!
Déjame amar tus brazos con la misma agonía
con que un día nací. Dame tu pecho azul,
y seremos por siempre el corazón del llanto.
LOS SONETOS DEL MAR
Evaristo Ribera Chevremont
¿Qué viento viene cabalgando en onda
coronada de luz, y en mis oídos
deja vastos mensajes encendidos
de tantas islas de celaje y fronda?
Me imagino en azul agua redonda
barcos que parten produciendo ruidos,
y marcando, en los cielos aturdidos
por el solar hervor, velas en ronda.
Me imagino, en bermejo mediodía,
alacre y moceril marinería
en grupo de nervioso movimiento.
Las islas en un ritmo de palmeras;
y ardiente, en cruda luz, en las riberas,
el viento de la infancia, el mismo viento.
Velas que ayer rondaron. Todavía
se yen resplandecer en oro y plata.
El bergantín ondeante, la fragata
en largos vuelos por la lejanía.
Grata visión de mis niñeces, grata
y honda visión de iluminado día,
cuando la juvenil marinería
irradiaba en azul y en escarlata.
Cuadros que trae el mar a la ribera
donde danzan el lirio y la palmera
y ríen repintados caracoles.
Paisajes fulgurosos del mar mío.
Paisajes que se ofrecen, con el brío
de cielos traspasados por los soles.
Mar de Dios, mar velado y protegido
por la gracia de amor en la belleza…
Uno mi pequeñez a su grandeza
y hallo en su plenitud nuevo sentido.
Mar de Dios, mar en luz, mar poseído
del misterio del mundo. Su pureza
-La del pez y la nave en luz y alteza-
me mueve al pensamiento y al sonido.
No arrojo el ancla. Es perennal el viaje.
Borda flores la espuma en el bordaje.
En el azul ensortijado ahondo.
Dios me espera en el mar. Y Dios me llama.
Tal vez Él me amortaje con la rama
del coral de su sangre en su azul fondo.
Belleza misteriosa y fugitiva;
belleza que es belleza en ci instante.
Insinuación celeste en el errante
misterio. Azul y rosa en aguaviva.
En lúcida presencia, en deslumbrante
y súbita apariencia, llama esquiva,
ostentada en la faz de quien la aviva
para el contemplador, para el amante.
En sus tres pianos, transitorio vuelo.
Auroras y arco iris en ci cielo.
En la tierra, las aguas y las flores.
Y ¿en el mar? En el mar, mayor riqueza:
en ondas verdeazules, la belleza
que pasa, con vejamen de primores.
¡Cómo se mueve el mar, cómo fulgura;
cómo verdes y azules eslabona;
cómo establece, en la caribe zona,
su bella y resonante dictadura!
¡Cómo, en la vena transparente y pura
de las aguas, sus brillos amontona;
cómo, en sus marejadas, se corona
de luz, llevando al aire su tersura!
¡Cómo a su superficie trae el hondo,
el vivo y claro impulso de su fondo,
el fuerte hervor de su punzante celo!
Cómo, en sus ligazones con el mito,
es, en su eternidad y en su infinito,
como Dios y las líneas de su cielo!
TRENO DE MAR
Luis Llorens Torres
Una novia en la playa…
Una vela en el mar…
Los péndulos de hojas,
que cuelgan del cocal,
tararean, ean, ean,
la Oración del Jamás.
Las gaviotas se cimbran
en el vuelo fugaz
con que las lleva al nido
la luz crepuscular.
Rojas brasas las rocas
queman la flor de sal,
que polvoreó sobre ellas
la salobre humedad.
Errante nube tiende
su pañolón de holán,
con que Dios en el cielo
limpia el azul cristal.
No hay espuma en la lenta
onda que viene y va.
Ni la brisa sahúma
la desmayada paz.
Lloran, bajo la tarde,
su triste soledad,
una novia en la playa
y una vela en el mar.
PARIÓ LA LUNA
Luis Llorens Torres
Altamar del Mar Caribe.
Noche azul. Blanca goleta.
Una voz grita en la noche:
-¡Marineros! ¡A cubierta!
Es el aullido del lobo
capitán de la velera.
Aúlla porque ha parido
su novia la luna nueva.
Y todos ven el lucero
que en el azul va tras ella:
ven el corderito blanco
detrás de la blanca oveja.
El piloto de la nave,
que a la baranda se acerca,
al ver el mar, todo espuma,
canta con voz de poeta:
-En sus azules hamacas
mece el mar sus azucenas.
Y entredice el sobrecargo:
-Es que las marinas yeguas
van al escape y sus crines
se vuelven sartas de perlas.
Y otra vez aúlla el lobo
capitán de la goleta:
-No son espumas de olas,
ni albas crines, ni azucenas:
es que en el mar cae la leche
del pecho que saca afuera,
porque ha parido un lucero,
mi novia la luna nueva.
José Gautier Benítez
Del mar de la vida las ondas en calma
cobra la luna con rayo fugaz,
y en el horizonte, cortando su curva,
descubre una nave, ¿quién sabe do va?
Y avanza y avanza cruzando las olas
y el blanco velamen ofrece al terral,
que juega en las flores de orilla lejana
y aroma la inmensa llanura de mar.
Ni ruido, ni voces, y todo en silencio.
Parece que solo camina el bajel.
Mas no, que buscando del norte la estrella,
tenaz a la caña se ye al timonel.
Estrellas y luna ¿do están? ¿qué se hicieron?
El éter no ostenta su límpido tul,
la mar se ennegrece, se turba, se agita,
y avanzan rugiendo los vientos del Sud.
Y allá en el nublado, confuso horizonte,
cual blanco a los rudos combates del mar,
bajando al abismo, subiendo a las nubes,
descubro una nave. ¿Quién sabe do ira?
La invaden las olas, la llenan de espuma
y azotan los flancos del débil bajel.
En medio del agua, del viento, del rayo,
tenaz a la caña se ye al timonel.
Y posa en el buque doliente mirada,
y llanto derraman sus ojos quizás,
al ver que no puede luchar con el viento,
al ver que se aumenta la furia del mar.
Mas no lo abandona, mas no desfallece,
comprende su grande, su santa misión,
y altivo levanta la impávida frente
que ofrece a los golpes del rudo aquilón.
Por más que se aumente la horrible tormenta,
por más que se estrellen las olas en él,
fijando en el norte la experta mirada
tenaz a la caña se ye al timonel.
Ya vuelven, ya vuelven las brisas tranquilas,
pasaron los vientos furiosos del Sud,
la mar se serena, se calma apacible,
y el éter recobra su límpido azul.
Cruzando las aguas que tocan la orilla
rompiendo las blancas espumas del mar,
y el ancho velamen al viento tendido,
descubro una nave, ¿quién sabe do va?
Lo sé, para el puerto: las últimas rocas
burlando que pueden romper el bajel,
lo mismo en bonanza que en ruda tormenta
tenaz a la caña se ve al timonel.
Evaristo Ribera Chevremont
Mar de las precisiones y las coloraciones.
Mar de las fantasías y las fosforescencias.
Mar de las resonancias, mar de las impulsiones.
Mar de las plenitudes y las magnificencias.
Mar de las expresiones y las dominaciones.
Mar de las convulsiones, mar de las consistencias.
Mar de las islas de oro, mar de los galeones.
Mar de los abordajes, mar de las turbulencias.
Me levanto en héroes, mar ronco de piratas.
Mar opulento en glorias de bronce y escarlatas.
Mar puro en la belleza de leyes y doctrinas.
Mar de los capitanes, mar de los monjes santos.
Mar que en las aguas tienes los no sabios cantos.
Mar que en los horizontes mi espíritu iluminas.
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