Iconography of the Carvings of Saints

Iconography of the Carvings of Saints Virgin of Montserrate The carving of saints is one of the principal manifestations of popular art in Puerto Rico. These carvings of colorfully painted wood represent various Catholic saints. For each of these characters there are multiple iconographic variants, so the symbols related to each particular saint are diverse. [...]

Iglesias Pantín, Santiago

Iglesias Pantín, Santiago El Porvenir Social, December 3, 1898 Santiago Iglesias was Spanish-born labor and organizer leader. He was one of the founders of the first Puerto Rican Socialist Party. Because of his annexationist convictions, he worked for union between Puerto Rico and the United States. He was elected to the Puerto Rico Senate while [...]

Ilex cookii, from Aquifoliaceae family

Ilex cookii Ilex cookii Family: Aquifoliaceae Ilex cookii is a small tree or shrub endemic to the highest peaks in Puerto Rico. This evergreen tree reaches a height of 5 to 8 feet and a trunk diameter of 5 inches. It is characterized by alternate, thick, stiff leaves that are ¾ to 1¾ inches long [...]

Immigration: Cubans and Dominicans

Cuban and Dominican Immigration Dominican Grocery Store in Santurce The massive influx of Cubans and Dominicans into Puerto Rico dates from the beginnings of the 1960s. Two political events in these neighboring countries marked the beginning of that period: the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and the assassination of the Dominican dictator, Rafael [...]

Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Caribbean

The Haitian Revolution and its Impact in the Caribbean The Haitian Revolution occupies a prominent spot among the most significant events in the history of the African diaspora in the Americas. The former French colony of Saint-Domingue — epicenter of the victorious slave rebellion — played a central role in European trans-Atlantic expansion. Its origin [...]

Implications of the Trade Agreements

Economic Implications for the Caribbean Region of Recent Trade Agreements Several trade agreements and treaties, as well as the creation of common markets and free trade zones, have been signed by Caribbean countries in the post-World War II era. Among the most prominent of these are the Lome Treaty between the European Community (EC) and [...]

Indigenous Population of Puerto Rico

Indigenous Population of Puerto Rico The number of indigenous people inhabiting the island of Puerto Rico when it was discovered by the Spanish (1493) remains a matter of controversy. Historians and other scholars of the subject have estimated that there were between 30,000 and 600,000 natives. However, the type of economic organization that prevailed among the indigenous people seems [...]

Indigenous Stonework Techniques

Stonework Techniques Mortar The indigenous groups of the Caribbean developed extremely elaborate techniques for working with stone, which allowed them to produce both ritual and utilitarian artifacts. These techniques were closely associated with the kinds of raw materials that were used and the various methods of striking them. The methods of producing items from stone [...]

Industrial Development and Environmental Impact

Current Challenges for Industrial Development and the Environmental Economy Economic and social development in the Caribbean has been accompanied by a significant environmental impact. In the Caribbean region, the greatest impact has been felt in the forests. Apart from the forests of the Great Antilles, the most important forests in the Caribbean Basin are located in the continental Caribbean countries. It is estimated, for [...]

Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean

Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean Panama Canal Many economists argue that the physical infrastructure of Latin American and Caribbean countries is insufficient to maintain favorable economic development. Adequate physical infrastructure is the foundation for economic development and the elimination of poverty. In other words, there is a direct relationship between the development of [...]