Early Inhabitants of the Caribbean: Origins and Characteristics

The Tainos: Social and Political Organization The Tainos achieved a high level of development in their socio-political organization, which was strictly hierarchical and pyramidical. In other words, a minority dominated the majority while exercising power and making decisions. The dominant group consisted of the Nitainos, who possibly were warriors who descended from an older nomadic […]

Early Years of the Puerto Rico Legislature

The Early Years of the Puerto Rico Legislature The strongest political opposition to the Foraker Act in the first decade of the 20th century came from the Puerto Rico Unionist Party, which was led by Luis Muñoz Rivera. In 1909, the Unionist Central Board, whose members held 35 seats in the House of Delegates, decided it was [...]

Earthquakes in the Caribbean

Seismic Activity in the Caribbean Seismic activity map, 1498-2010 The Caribbean region (consisting of Central America, the northern part of South America, and the Caribbean islands) is one of the most active seismic zones in the world. Over the past 500 years, very significant earthquakes have caused deaths, property damage and financial losses. Although dozens [...]

Ecological Humanism and Sociology

Ecological Humanism and the Sociology of Work and Culture - page 1 Ángel G. Quintero Rivera, Humanist of the Year 2009 In the troubadour’s art, which interweaves invention and memory, the popular improvisations often turn established meanings upside down. With his in-depth recounting of my career in the humanities, Arcadio Díaz Quiñones, following the example [...]

Ecological value of trees

Trees Red and yellow flamboyan trees Trees have great ecological value and provide us with many benefits. Of the natural resources a human being comes in contact with, trees are probably the one we mostly identify with during different stages of our development. They can evoke times of play, love, reflections of childhood, adolescence, or [...]

Economic Americanization of Puerto Rico

The Economic Americanization of Puerto Rico (1898-1930) Before the U.S. military invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War, the United States was already the main buyer of sugar produced on the island and its principal provider of merchandise. This economic relationship became even closer from the beginning of the 19th century, when the Spanish empire [...]

Economic Geography of the Caribbean Today

Economic Geography of the Caribbean Today The Port of San Juan The economy in the Caribbean region is taking new directions in the new millennium. The economic structure of Antillean countries is based on three fundamental sectors: commercial and subsistence agriculture, cruise ship tourism, and manufacturing using raw materials obtained in the region. Commercial agriculture on large [...]

Economic Integration and International Trade

Economic Integration and International Trade in the Caribbean Region There have been various political and economic integration efforts in the Caribbean islands, a region that includes 16 independent countries and 12 dependent territories. Perhaps the first effort at regional or subregional cooperation or integration among the Caribbean islands was the creation of the now-extinct West [...]

Economy and Environment in the Caribbean

The Economy and the Environment in the Caribbean The Caribbean’s economic and social development has been accompanied by a significant environmental impact. Various processes that are directly or indirectly related to the industrialization and economic development of the Caribbean region are associated with adverse environmental effects: the expansion of tourism, the increasing use of chemicals in [...]

Economy of Puerto Rico, 19th Century

Economic History of Puerto Rico in the 19th Century: The Search for Self-Sufficiency The most significant changes in the Puerto Rico economy during the 19th century began during the final third of the previous century when, influenced by the reformist ideas of the Enlightenment, the Spanish empire liberalized trade laws for its colonies in the Americas. [...]